Severe labour exploitation is widespread across the European Union. While workplace inspections can help counter this phenomenon, they need to be strengthened to do so effectively. Based on interviews and focus group discussions with almost 240 exploited workers active in diverse economic sectors, this report provides important evidence on how unscrupulous employers manipulate and undermine inspections, and on what can be done to counteract such efforts.
Annex 1: Institutional set up (monitoring) for combating labour exploitation at national level.
Annex 2: Risk management systems to detect labour exploitation at national level.
The founding treaties, the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and secondary EU law all provide for EU citizens’ freedom to move and reside freely in any EU country of their choice. Growing numbers of citizens, and their family members, are making use of this freedom and related rights, such as the right not to be discriminated against based on nationality and the right to vote in certain elections in the host Member State. But making these rights a reality remains a challenge. This report presents an EU-wide, comparative overview of the application of the Free Movement Directive (2004/38/EC) across the 28 Member States based on a review of select case law at national level.
The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights has been collecting relevant data since November 2015, in light of the increasing numbers of refugees, asylum seekers and migrants entering the EU. This report focuses on the fundamental rights situation of people arriving in Member States particularly affected by large migration movements. The countries covered are: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and Sweden.
Across the European Union, Member States are faced with the challenge of integrating Europe’s most deprived and disenfranchised minority groups. As a follow up to the EU-MIDIS II findings on Roma, this report presents FRA’s findings relating to the issues of education and employment. Encouraging Roma participation in education and employment equips communities with higher incomes, better life opportunities and greater social inclusion.
This paper offers recommendations to Member States and EU institutions on accelerated and simplified procedures. It draws on existing practice of European States, and on UNHCR’s experience in mandate refugee status determination, with a focus on specific models and tools that have proved efficient, flexible, and fair for processing manifestly well-founded and manifestly unfounded claims.
La Unión Europea ha centrado desde hace años sus esfuerzos políticos y presupuestarios en una parte minoritaria del fenómeno migratorio, y más orientada a detener que a gobernar la movilidad humana. El pico de llegadas de personas en busca de protección en el año 2015 reforzó este enfoque limitado. Desde entonces, y pese a que las llegadas están hoy en niveles previos a 2015, el el control de los flujos a toda costa sigue vertebrando la política migratoria comunitaria, consolidando cuatro tendencias que podrían ser agrupadas bajo el acrónimo SPEC: Securitización de la gestión de fronteras; Privatización de políticas y servicios básicos; Externalización del control migratorio; y Criminalización narrativa y electoral de las personas migrantes. Estas políticas y prácticas tienen consecuencias directas en la vida de las personas, en la libre circulación en el espacio europeo, en el ascendiente de Europa frente a Estados fallidos, y en la naturaleza misma de la ayuda al desarrollo. Pero existen alternativas: Europa puede convertirse en una fuerza reformista contribuyendo al desarrollo y la implementación de marcos de protección integrales en la línea de los Pactos de Migración y Refugio; ampliando las vías legales y seguras de inmigración económica; e incorporando la movilidad humana como una herramienta de las políticas europeas de desarrollo. Los próximos meses ofrecen oportunidades políticas concretas para promover esta agenda dentro y fuera de la UE.
Much has changed since 2015, when irregular migration flows across the Mediterranean spiked, leaving EU and national policymakers scrambling to expand reception and registration capacity, coordinate aid and services, and manage onward movements across Europe. A great deal of learning and progress has taken place in areas such as information collection and sharing, coordination, leadership, and resourcing. Yet officials remain concerned that, should a new migration crisis arise, the European Union may still struggle to respond.
Across the European Union, people face hatred because of their skin colour, ethnicity, religion, gender or sexuality. In response, the EU and its Member States have introduced laws against hate crime and support services for victims. But these will only fulfil their potential if victims report hate-motivated harassment and violence to the police, and if police officers record such incidents as hate crimes. This report provides rich and detailed information on hate crime recording and data collection systems across the EU, including any systemic cooperation with civil society.
ECRE has published its Comments on the European Commission proposal for an amendment to the Migration Statistics Regulation, which sets out Member States’ obligations to collect and transmit statistics on international protection, return and residence permits to Eurostat. The proposal responds to a “real need” to improve statistics in order to provide an adequate evidence base to debate policies on asylum and migration management. However, as per its Explanatory Memorandum, it adopts a minimalist approach to reform by proposing “very precise improvements” to the Migration Statistics Regulation and by targeting data “already generally available in the national authorities’ administrative sources”. The revision of the Migration Statistics Regulation offers a real opportunity for reflection and thorough analysis of statistical gaps in the EU legal framework, however. In line with its consistent recommendations for better data collection on the Common European Asylum System, ECRE urges the European Parliament and the Council to engage in an ambitious and in-depth reform of the Regulation so as to set the necessary foundations for a clear, detailed understanding and evidence-based debate of Member States’ responses to the plight of people seeking protection. ECRE’s recommendations to co-legislators include: a clear distinction between admissibility and merit-related rejections of asylum claims in statistics; more frequent data on the Dublin system; and obligations to collect statistics on additional areas such as accelerated and border procedures, age assessment of unaccompanied children, detention and family reunification with beneficiaries of international protection. The European Commission is also set to publish a report on the implementation of the current Migration Statistics Regulation by August 2018, following the previous implementation report released in July 2015.
The stories of the domestic workers FRA interviewed for this paper reveal appalling working conditions and fundamental rights abuses in private homes across the EU. These stories indicate that, seven years on from FRA’s first report on domestic workers in 2011, little has changed in terms of the risks and experiences of severe labour exploitation domestic workers in the EU face.