We are examining DFID’s work in Bangladesh and Burma. This Report is the first output from that inquiry. It focuses on the culmination of decades of marginalisation and abuse of the Rohingya people of Rakhine State in northern Burma. This took the form of a “textbook example of ethnic cleansing” perpetrated by the Burmese security forces over the latter half of 2017 causing the flight of over 650,500 Rohingya people into Bangladesh.
As we enter 2018, Myanmar continues to face significant humanitarian challenges related to the recent crisis in Rakhine, large-scale displacement, food insecurity, protracted problems of statelessness and discrimination, ongoing armed conflict in some parts of the country, inter-communal tensions and vulnerability to natural disasters. The situation is particularly serious in Rakhine State, where the humanitarian crisis deepened in 2017. Armed attacks on police posts and subsequent security operations by Government forces led to mass displacement, with over 600,000 people – mostly Muslims who self identify as ‘Rohingya’ – seeking refuge across the border in Bangladesh and many others being internally displaced.
In 2018, we predict that conflict will remain the main driver of humanitarian needs, while natural disasters will also cause many people to need emergency aid. Overall, more than 135 million people across the world will need humanitarian assistance and protection – and more funding than ever before is required to help them. Humanitarian agencies are committed to becoming more effective, efficient and cost-effective in order to respond faster to crises and in ways more attuned to the needs of those they are trying to help. In 2018 we will undertake more comprehensive, cross-sectoral and impartial needs assessments and we will contribute to long-term solutions by partnering more closely with development agencies.
The humanitarian crisis in Somalia is among the most complex and longstanding emergencies. While large-scale famine has been averted in 2017, the humanitarian impact of the drought has been devastating. More than 6.2 million people, half of the population, are in need of humanitarian assistance and protection. The ongoing confl ict continues to reduce the resilience of communities, trigger displacement and impede civilians’ access to basic services and humanitarians’ access to those in need. Exclusion and discrimination of socially marginalized groups are contributing to high levels of acute humanitarian need and lack of protection among some of the most vulnerable. Disease outbreaks such as acute watery diarrhea (AWD)/cholera and measles continue to lead to preventable deaths across the country.
La crise humanitaire au Niger s’aggrave en raison notamment de la persistance de la crise sécuritaire, de l’emergence de crises multiples à Diffa, Tillabery et Tahoua. Elle reste marquée par la superposition de vulnérabilités tant chroniques qu’aiguës. L’insécurité grandissante aux frontières du Mali et une situation de déplacements prolongés dans la région de Diffa en raison des attaques de Boko Haram se produisent dans un contexte caractérisé par une pauvreté soutenue, l’insuffisance des services sociaux de base et une courbe démographique en constante progression. Le nombre de personnes dans le besoin passe à 2,3 millions, soit une augmentation de 400 000 personnes par rapport à 2017. L’analyse des besoins montre la persistance de cinq crises majeures : insécurité alimentaire, malnutrition, épidémies, inondations et mouvements de populations.
(Report from UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs). As of 1 December 2016, 0.5 million people remain displaced in the north-west, while 0.63 million IDPs returned to FATA during the year. The country hosts 1.34 million registered Afghan refugees, one of the world’s largest protracted refugee caseloads. An additional 0.7 million undocumented Afghans may be vulnerable. Pakistan is prone to natural disasters, and acute malnutrition exceeds emergency levels in areas around the country.
(Report from Concern Worldwide, Welthungerhilfe, International Food Policy Research Institute). The 2017 Global Hunger Index (GHI) shows long-term progress in reducing hunger in the world. The advances have been uneven, however, with millions of people still experiencing chronic hunger and many places suffering acute food crises and even famine.
The security situation in the Syrian Arab Republic (Syria) remains fluid, and complex patterns of conflict and displacement continue in many areas. An estimated 1.1 million displacements were recorded in the first half of 2017, at an average of 7,300 displacements per day, notably in the context of the Ar-Raqqa offensive. Between January and May 2017, some 450,000 IDPs were estimated to have returned to their community of origin, 303,500 of whom in Aleppo Governorate. The estimated total number of IDPs remained at 6.3 million as of 31 March 2017, and some 13.5 million people remain in need of humanitarian assistance within Syria according to OCHA statistics.
(Report from UNOCHA). The global number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) has reached an all-time high, as an increasing number of IDPs remain displaced for years or even decades. In 2014, more than 50 countries were reported to have people living in internal displacement for more than 10 years. As illustrated in the five country case studies informing this report (Colombia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the Philippines, Somalia and Ukraine)i , a rapidly resolved internal displacement crisis where IDPs find durable solutions—sustainable return, local integration or relocation—has become a rare exception.
A report just released by the ICRC estimates that fifty million people currently bear the brunt of war in cities around the world. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/4312_002_Urban-Warfare_web_new_EN.pdf