In February 2016, a new approach to dealing with protracted displacement was signed: the Jordan Compact. In return for billions of dollars in grants, loans and preferential trade agreements with the European Union, Jordan committed to improving access to education and legal employment for its Syrian refugees. The Compact showed that, by building on existing political capital and economic and political incentives, a restrictive policy environment can be opened up and funds can be mobilised in a short space of time. Two years on, the Compact has led to considerable improvements in education and labour market access for Syrian refugees, though challenges remain that will need to be tackled through targeted interventions.
This paper looks at how Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana and Peru are aligning their energy policies with their Nationally Determined Contributions. The effectiveness of national energy policy will be decisive for achieving the objectives of the Paris Agreement and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Emissions from the production and consumption of energy need to reduce significantly, but government commitments in their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) fall short of the action required. About half of the NDCs submitted do not include actions to reduce energy emissions and, when included, actions may not reflect all energy emissions or be consistent with national energy policies. In this paper the authors look at how four specific developing countries are aligning their energy policies with their NDCs, or missing key opportunities to do so, and they raise questions about how governments could do things differently. The authors identify Ethiopia and Peru as examples of good practice in addressing energy emissions in their NDCs and consistency with national energy plans. Ethiopia intends to reduce its total emissions by 64% against a businessas-usual trajectory, while Peru aims to reduce emissions by 30% (both conditional on international support). Bangladesh and Ghana were selected as countries with relatively low ambition in their NDCs. Independent analysis of alternative emissions reduction pathways suggests that there is potential for both countries to submit more ambitious emissions reduction commitments, which would be consistent with their energy sector development goals. When development co-benefits are taken into consideration, such as job creation and improvements to health, the case for higher ambition is strengthened.
This report explores the gender-related barriers young people seeking access to employment or entrepreneurship opportunities face. Gender plays an important role in shaping young people’s transitions into work. In order to be effective, interventions aimed at supporting young people’s access to employment or entrepreneurship opportunities should be tailored to address gendered barriers. This report explores the gender-related barriers faced by young women and young men, reviews the many approaches that programs take to confront these barriers and tries to establish whether and how these approaches have been successful. It finds that programming with gender-responsive components can have positive effects on gender equality in relation to participation, performance and opportunities. Evidence on the impacts of gender-responsive programming – and on long-term change – is, however, lacking.
This report explores whether local actors in Ukraine and Syria obtain access, and if they do, how they negotiate such access to conduct relief and protection operations. It also reflects more broadly on how local knowledge on access can be better harnessed to serve those in need.
Since the World Humanitarian Summit in May 2016, the idea of responses that are ‘as local as possible, as international as necessary’ has emerged as both a central and a contentious point of departure for reforming the existing humanitarian architecture. Critiques of the system have led to calls to allow space for a more devolved humanitarianism that recognises that first responders are almost always local. Such a response is more contextually appropriate and attuned to existing needs; enhances flexibility and efficiency; and involves local aid actors and communities more meaningfully in humanitarian decision-making.
In Somalia, the relationship between formal and informal spheres of governance are being renegotiated. In many areas, the formal state has been absent for a long time, or government agents only recently appointed by the Federal Government of Somalia. Meanwhile, there are powerful non-state actors who play roles in customary and informal governance systems, that in turn work to compete with, accommodate and influence formal state institutions.
This report presents an overview of the current evidence base on the complex relationships between climate change and human mobility. It aims to support the development of an informed global discourse across the humanitarian, peace and sustainable development agendas and as a counter to some of the sensationalist claims often propagated by the media. In so doing, the paper illustrates that to adequately address human mobility in international and national policy responses, the links between climate change, displacement and migration need to be better understood.
This report is from a study which aimed to find out what effects the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) cash assistance has had on the lives of Syrian refugees in Jordan.
This working paper, based largely on interviews with 31 individuals from donor organisations, United Nations agencies and non-governmental organisations in Lebanon and headquarters, impartially documents the process and the positions and perspectives of key actors involved in developing and responding to the joint United Kingdom Department for International Development and European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations cash initiative. It is intended as a positive contribution to learning lessons from the process, and to inform discussion on how cash can be part of a more effective humanitarian response in Lebanon and elsewhere.
This report aims to make the case for ambitious policy agendas geared toward kick-starting and supporting the nascent demographic transition in SSA.