This submission was prepared for the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) of Uzbekistan in May 2018. In it, Amnesty International evaluates the implementation of recommendations made to Uzbekistan in its previous UPR, assesses the national human rights framework and the human rights situation on the ground, and makes a number of recommendations to the government of Uzbekistan to address the human rights challenges mentioned in this report.
Five months after the Myanmar military unleashed a brutal campaign of ethnic cleansing against the Rohingya population in northern Rakhine State, the security forces continue to commit serious human rights violations against those who remained through the most acute violence. Instead of terrorizing the population through killings, rapes, and the widespread burning of Rohingya villages, security forces are today using mainly quieter and more subtle measures to squeeze people out, making life so intolerable that they have little option other than to leave.
Index number: ASA 34/7781/2018. For the past four and a half years, more than 800 refugees and people seeking asylum have been immured in Australian-run detention centres on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea (PNG). The PNG government has repeatedly failed to implement measures to integrate refugees, ensure they are self-sufficient, provide them with travel or identity documents or provide for their freedom of movement. Even if they were willing to address these issues, they have been unable to protect refugees from the violence they face in the community. Australia has used a deliberate system of indifference and cruelty to increase the hardship suffered by refugees and people seeking asylum and remains responsible for their fate and well-being. Australia must end its harmful offshore processing polices and bring those who sought asylum in its territory back there, or allow and facilitate them to settle in other safe countries.
Index number: AFR 45/7594/2018. This briefing makes the health and human rights case for a comprehensive assessment of the actual and potential long-term health impacts of the dumping of toxic waste in the city of Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire in August 2006.
Index number: AFR 46/7700/2018. Many girls in Zimbabwe experience unintended pregnancy and are at disproportionate risk of maternal mortality and morbidity, HIV infection and early or forced marriage. Amnesty International’s report highlights how barriers to sexual and reproductive health services and information for adolescents in Zimbabwe, put girls’ health and futures at risk. Key barriers include: inconsistent laws and policies relating to the age at which girls are able to access sexual and reproductive health services without parental consent; Stigma around the sexual activity of adolescents; a lack of comprehensive sexuality education; and high fees for maternal health services.
Mexico is witnessing a hidden refugee crisis on its doorstep. Citizens from nearby countries who formerly left Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador and passed through Mexico in search of economic opportunities have for a number of years been leaving their countries due to fear for their lives and personal liberty. This briefing demonstrates that the Mexican government is routinely failing in its treaty obligations under international law to protect those who are in need of international protection, as well as repeatedly violating the non-refoulement principle, a binding pillar of international law that prohibits the return of people to life-threatening situations.
Index number: AMR 22/7727/2018. Amnesty International provides the below information to the United Nations (UN) Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (the Committee) ahead of the adoption of concluding observations for the seventh periodic review of Chile at its 69th session. This submission outlines Amnesty International’s main concerns regarding the implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women by Chile, especially regarding women and girls’ sexual and reproductive rights, legal gender recognition and marriage equality.
Index number: EUR 04/7574/2017. This report finds that discrimination, homophobia and Russia’s crusade against non-traditional sexual relationships have helped fuel a worrying rise in hostility towards LGBTI human rights groups in parts of the former Soviet Union. Social and political homophobia and transphobia in Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan contribute to the marginalisation of LGBTI HRDs and activists. The state authorities are unwilling to protect LGBTI HRDs and activists – police fail to prevent and investigate homophobic and transphobic hate crimes against LGBTI HRDs, activists and community members. LGBTI HRDs are often left demoralised by the failure of other civil society actors to show solidarity and support, and include the human rights of LGBTI people in their own advocacy and programme work. These challenges weaken the reach and impact of advocacy for LGBTI rights, and threatens the sustainability of work towards realising the rights of LGBTI people. The report concludes with concrete recommendations for national and international actors.
Index number: AFR 52/7609/2017. In 2016, Amnesty International documented that Somali refugees in Dadaab, Kenya, were effectively coerced into returning. This follow-up briefing focuses on the situation in Somalia to which they returned. This briefing concludes that the current context in Somalia is not conducive to returns. The Governments of Kenya and Somalia, and UNHCR, should halt returns until they meet the requirements of voluntariness, safety and dignity, and the international community should provide more support to Kenya and Somalia, including assistance for refugees and IDPs.
Almost two decades after the end of the war in Kosovo, survivors of war-time rape will, from January 2018, receive long overdue recognition of and a measure of reparation for the harm they suffered during the armed conflict. The legislative changes making this possible fall far short of international standards for reparation and needs of survivors who will continue to be denied access to free healthcare and adequate rehabilitation. Despite the widespread and systematic nature of conflict-related sexual violence in Kosovo, perpetrators have not been brought to justice and survivors fear that the crimes committed against them will remain unpunished.