In November 1995, the Nigerian state arbitrarily executed nine men after a blatantly unfair trail. The executions led to global condemnation. Officially accused of involvement in murder, the men had in fact been put on trial because they had challenged the devastating impact of oil production by the Anglo-Dutch oil giant, Shell, in the Ogoniland region of the Niger Delta. This briefing examines the role played by the Shell in the unfair trial and arbitrary execution of the Ogoni Nine. Shell has always denied any involvement. However, Amnesty International’s work at the time, as well as evidence being used in a new legal action in the Netherlands, brought by the widows of some of the men who were executed, paints a very different picture.