Index number: ASA 23/6059/2017. Human rights defenders and political opposition activists are under attack in Cambodia. In the four years since the national election in July 2013, the country’s government and the ruling Cambodian People’s Party have used the criminal justice system to target activists and restrict the space they operate within. This report sets out how criminal cases are being opened against activists for peaceful activities and how these cases are used as a means to intimidate activists from refraining from wholeheartedly fulfilling their important roles. In the context of the coming commune and national elections, the situation is likely to get worse.