Index number: MDE 14/4962/2016. The armed conflict in Iraq has had a devastating impact on civilians.The armed group calling itself the Islamic State (IS) has committed crimes under international law including war crimes and crimes against humanity in territories under its control and launched deadly bombings and other attacks elsewhere in Iraq. Government forces and paramilitary militias have also compounded the suffering of civilians by committing war crimes and other serious human rights violations in their battle to reclaim territory from IS and eradicate its ability to carry out deadly violence. The plight of internally displaced persons (IDPs) does not end once they reach territories outside of IS control. Hundreds of thousands continue to live in dire conditions with insufficient or no access to essential services and medical care. Thousands of men and boys, fleeing IS territory, have been rounded up by security forces or militias on suspicion of links to IS. Some have been extrajudicially executed, while the fate of others remains unknown amid concerns for their lives and safety. Thousands more have been locked up, and remain at the mercy of a deeply flawed criminal justice system.